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Posted by Elizabeth Napp on 3/6/2013 9:00:00 AM
Word Bank: Enlightenment, Safavid, Indian National Congress, Ottoman, Islam, Great Britain, Kulaks, Song, Liberals, Vladimir I
1- The final set of treaties that ended the First World War included the formation of a League of Nations (an international peace-keeping organization) that the United States refused to join; the Treaty of Versailles that forced Germany to accept blame for the war (a War Guilt Clause) and to pay reparations to the victorious Allies; the division of Austria-Hungary into a Germanic Austria as well as independent states of Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia; and the end of the ________ Empire. However, Russia was most definitely NOT rewarded for its service to the Allies because with its Bolshevik Revolution; Russia had dropped out of the war, signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the Germans, and embraced Marxist ideology.
2- The three Muslim Empires of the early modern era (Ottoman, ________, and Mughal) had many similarities such as all were derived from Turkic nomadic cultures of the Central Asian steppe; all depended on the effective use of firearms and gunpowder on the battlefield and in siege warfare; all produced a flowering Islamic civilization; and all supported their bureaucracies and military with taxes levied on the peoples of their agrarian societies, societies that each conquered and ruled. Of course, there were differences. One of these Empires adhered to Shi’a Islam.
3- Economic developments that occurred during the period of commercial expansion in the T’ang and _______ Dynasties of China included a series of technological breakthroughs; increasing trading activities carried out by Chinese sailors and ships; enlarged market quarters in all cities and major towns; and a growing sophistication in commercial organization and forms of credit.
4- The Kievan ruler, ________, preferred Orthodox Christianity to Roman Catholicism because he believed that Roman Catholicism implied papal interference, while Orthodoxy embraced the control of the church by the state. Indeed, Kievan Russia’s religious culture and social and economic patterns developed separately from Western Europe’s. Of course by 1236, Kievan Russia was conquered by the Mongols. Mongol rule in Kiev was particularly harsh because the Kievans had resisted paying the tribute and ultimately, the Mongols favoured Moscow which emerged as the centre of the new Russian state after the era of the "Golden Horde."
5- The following statements concerning the ethical system of early _______ are correct: It stressed the dignity of all believers and their equality in the eyes of Allah; it stressed the responsibility of the wealthy and strong to care for the poor and weak; a tax for charity was obligatory; and it recognized the truth of similar ethical ideas in Judaism and Christianity. According to this religion, Muhammad is the "Seal of the Prophets" or the final prophet and the Islamic umma or community transcends old tribal boundaries, making possible political unity among Arab clans.
6- The causes of the French Revolution included the influence of the ________ and its philosophers urging the need to limit the powers of the monarchy, aristocracy, and the Catholic Church; the middle class demand for greater political representation; the peasant desire for freedom from manorialism; and the inequity of the class system [the Estates System]. The Revolution began in 1789. On July 14th, the political prison known as the Bastille was stormed; providing a revolutionary symbol. During the radical phase of the Revolution [known as the Reign of Terror and under the leadership of Maximilien Robespierre], the king was executed and the titles of nobility were abolished. The final phase of the Revolution was ushered in by Napoleon Bonaparte.
7- ________ would espouse the following statement: "The political goals of greatest significance are the establishment of constitutional rule and the extension of the parliamentary franchise to propertied men of the middle class." However, socialists would espouse, "As long as property is controlled by private individuals, inequality will exist. It is the role of the state to manage property for the benefit of all citizens."
8- The Industrial Revolution began in ________ because it possessed natural resources such as coal and iron, strong capital reserves from previous trade, faith in human progress and in human ability to dominate nature, and the existence of a large peasant class. The first industry in Great Britain to experience industrialization was the textile industry.
9- The wealthy, commercially oriented peasants who controlled most of Russian land were called the _______. In 1929 the Soviet government began a drive for rapid collectivization of agriculture. These wealthy peasants vigorously opposed the efforts to force the peasants to give up their small privately owned farms and join large cooperative agricultural establishments. At the end of 1929 a campaign to "liquidate the [these peasants] as a class" was launched by the government. By 1934, when approximately 75 percent of the farms in the Soviet Union had been collectivized, most these peasants - as well as millions of other peasants who had opposed collectivization - had been deported to remote regions of the Soviet Union or arrested and their land and property confiscated.
10- In 1885, regional associations of Western-educated Indians came together to form the _________. In the 1920s and 1930s, this group was led by Mohandas K. Gandhi who promoted nonviolent noncooperation to protest British rule of India. Much of the group’s civil disobedience was implemented through the All India Congress Committee, formed in 1929, which advocated tax avoidance to protest British rule. When independence was achieved, Jawaharlal Nehru dominated the group as did his daughter, Indira Gandhi.