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Posted by Elizabeth Napp on 3/4/2013 8:00:00 PM
Word Bank: Nationalism, New Economic Policy (N.E.P.), Karl Marx, Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Margaret Sanger, Soviet Union, Mustafa Kemal, Alexander Kerensky, Albert Einstein, Theodore Herzl
1- In early March 1917 (February by the old Russian calendar) food ran out in Petrograd (St. Petersburg), the capital. Housewives and women factory workers staged mass demonstrations. Soldiers mutinied and joined striking workers to form soviets (councils) to take over factories and barracks. A few days later the tsar of Russia abdicated, and leaders of the parliamentary parties, led by ________, formed a Provisional Government. Thus, began what Russians called the "February Revolution." But the Provisional Government continued Russian involvement in World War I; and when Vladimir Lenin, the leader of the Bolsheviks (communists) promised "Bread, Peace, and Land," a war-weary Russia listened. On November 6, 1917 (October 24th in the Russian calendar), the second Russian revolution began.
2- The Bolsheviks sued for peace with Germany and Austria-Hungary. By the ________, signed on March 3, 1918, Russia lost territories containing a third of its population and wealth. Poland, Finland, and the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) became independent republics. Leon Trotsky, the leader of the Red Army, tried to persuade the reluctant Bolsheviks to adopt a policy under which Russia would leave the war but sign no peace treaty ("neither war nor peace"). However, Lenin, realizing that the new Soviet state was too weak to survive a continuation of the war, threatened to resign if the German terms were not met.
3- Years of warfare, revolution, and mismanagement ruined the Russian economy. By 1921, it had declined to one-sixth of its pre-World War I level. Factories and railroads had shut down for lack of fuel, raw materials, and parts. Farmland had been devastated, and livestock killed, causing hunger in the cities. Finding himself master of a country in ruin, Vladimir Lenin decided to release the economy from party and government control. In March 1921, he announced the ________. It allowed peasants to own land and sell their crops, private merchants to trade, and private workshops to produce goods and sell them on the free market. Only the biggest businesses, such as banks, railroads, and factories, remained under government ownership. But this policy reflected no change in the ultimate goals of the Communist Party. It merely provided breathing space, what Lenin called "two steps back to advance one step forward."
4- In the modern era, a nationalist movement called Zionism, led by _______, arose among those who wanted to return to their ancestral homeland in Palestine. The concept of a Jewish homeland appealed to many Europeans, Jews and Gentiles alike, as a humanitarian solution to the problem of anti-Semitism.
5- ________, known as Atatürk, was eager to modernize and westernize the new nation of Turkey, which had emerged out of the ashes of the Ottoman Empire. Atatürk was eager to bring Turkey closer to Europe as quickly as possible. He abolished the sultanate, declared Turkey a secular republic, and introduced European laws. In a radical break with Islamic tradition, he suppressed Muslim courts, schools, and religious orders and replaced the Arabic alphabet with the Latin alphabet. He even attempted to westernize the traditional Turkish family. Women received civil equality, including the right to vote and to be elected to the national assembly. He forbade polygamy and instituted civil marriage and divorce. He even changed people’s clothing, strongly discouraging women from veiling their faces, and replaced the fez, until then the traditional Turkish men’s hat, with the European brimmed hat.
6- After the First World War, women were active in many other areas besides the suffrage movement. Among the most controversial, and eventually most effective of the reformers, were those who advocated contraception, such as the American _______, (1883-1966). Her campaign brought her into conflict with the authorities who equated birth control with pornography. Finally, in 1923, she was able to found a birth control clinic in New York. In France, however, the government prohibited contraception and abortion in 1920 in an effort to increase the birthrate and make up for the loss of so many young men in the war. Only the Russian Communists allowed abortion for ideological reasons.
7- Ho Chi Minh and Mao Tse-tung both borrowed their ideologies from ________. Ho Chi Minh became the father of modern Vietnam, while Mao founded the People’s Republic of China in 1949. Both borrowed heavily from ideas about workers needing to overthrow imperialist capitalists.
8- The great twentieth-century physicist credited with the theory of relativity is _________. The older model of Newtonian physics was rethought when this individual published his theory of relativity in the early twentieth century. He theorized that matter, space, and time were not fixed but relative to one another. New theories about the nature of light and the universe followed. This amounted to a revolution in terms of human understanding of the universe.
9- The nation that experienced the most casualties during World War II was the _________. It is estimated that over 50 million people died in World War II. The war between Germany and this nation was particularly gruesome and hard-fought, and left as many as 20 million dead in this nation. Both sides set aside the conventional rules of combat and fought one another without restraint. While many more individuals in this nation died in the battles fought, the Germans were eventually invaded by this nation and defeated in 1945.
10- The most influential factor in the weakening of European empires after 1945 was the rise of _________ that was prompted by both world wars. The Age of Imperialism was at its peak prior to World War I as European nations competed for foreign territories in Asia and Africa. Both World War I and World War II dealt severe blows to European powers and also encouraged Asian and African independence movements. Even victorious powers such as Britain and France suffered greatly in fighting the long and costly wars of the twentieth century. After 1945, they tried unsuccessfully to retain their empires but no longer had the will or resources to do so. One by one, Asian and African nations fought for and won their independence. By 1970, little was left of European power in the Southern and Eastern hemispheres.