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Posted by Elizabeth Napp on 3/1/2013 12:45:00 PM
Word Bank: Nikita Khrushchev, Wannsee Conference, Tokugawa Ieyasu, Taiping Rebellion, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Peace of Westphalia, Peasants, Matteo Ricci, Great Depression, "Velvet Revolution"
1- The _______ was the European settlement of 1648 that brought to an end the Thirty Years’ War. It confirmed the Peace of Augsburg which had granted Lutherans religious tolerance in the Holy Roman Empire and which had been rescinded by the Holy Roman emperor Ferdinand II in his Edict of Restitution (1629). Moreover, the peace settlement extended the Peace of Augsburg’s provisions for religious toleration to the Reformed (Calvinist) church, thus securing toleration for the three great religious communities of the Holy Roman Empire: Roman Catholic, Lutheran, and Calvinist.
2- In 1600, _______ finished the process of unifying Japan. In 1603, the powerless but prestigious imperial court, which over the years had dutifully assigned him titles that reflected his growing power, appointed him shogun, thereby acknowledging that he was the most powerful daimyo in Japan and officially authorized to keep the peace in the emperor’s name. By 1612, however, certain diplomatic incidents had convinced this old soldier that Christian missionaries in Japan were, potentially at least, part of a secular threat to the political order that he had so laboriously constructed, and in the next two years he took steps to stop missionary activity and discourage the practice of their religion. He started a trend that his successors were to pursue for three decades, until Christianity was nearly eradicated in Japan and only a token foreign trade survived at Nagasaki.
3- In The True Meaning of the Lord of Heaven, ________ argued that the doctrines of Confucius and Jesus were very close to each other. This Italian Jesuit missionary introduced Christian teaching to the Chinese empire in the 16th century. He lived in China for nearly thirty years and was a pioneer in the attempt at mutual comprehension between China and the West. By adopting the language and culture of the country, he gained entrance to the interior of China, which was normally closed to foreigners.
4- The leader of the _______ was Hong Xiuquan. When this religious prophet and leader failed the civil service exam for the third time in 1837, the strain was more than he could bear. He suffered an emotional collapse. During a delirium that lasted several days, he had several visions. Later, he came to believe that during his illness he had been transported to heaven and had spoken to Jesus Christ. Hong came to believe that he was the second son of God, sent to save China. He proclaimed his new dynasty, the Taiping Tianguo ("Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace"). His followers grew from a ragged band of a few thousand to a fanatical but highly disciplined army of more than a million, divided into separate divisions of men and women soldiers. Men and women were considered equal but were allowed no contact with one another. After Hong’s army captured the great central China city of Nanjing on March 10, 1853, he decided to halt his troops and make the city his permanent capital, renaming it Tianjing ("Heavenly Capital"). A northern expedition to capture the Qing capital at Beijing failed and eventually this leader committed suicide.
5- On Black Thursday, October 24, 1929, the U.S. Stock Market crashed; contributing to the _______ of the 1930s. Many factors likely contributed to the collapse of the stock market. Among the more prominent causes were the period of rampant speculation (those who had bought stocks on margin not only lost the value of their investment, they also owed money to the entities that had granted the loans for the stock purchases), tightening of credit by the Federal Reserve, the proliferation of holding companies and investment trusts (which tended to create debt), a multitude of large bank loans that could not be liquidated, and an economic recession that had begun earlier in the summer.
6- The leader of the Arab world in the 1950’s and 1960’s was ________. This army officer, prime minister (1954-56), and then president (1956-70) of Egypt became a controversial leader of the Arab world, creating the short-lived United Arab Republic (1958-61), twice fighting wars with Israel (1956, 1967), and engaging in such inter-Arab policies as mediating the Jordanian civil war (1970). The Aswan Dam was built with the help of the Soviet Union under his leadership and began operating in 1968. In addition, 20th-century life was introduced into many villages; industrialization was accelerated; land reforms broke up Egypt’s large private estates; a partially successful campaign was conducted against corruption; and women were accorded more rights than they had ever had, including the right to vote. In foreign affairs, he joined Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia and Jawaharlal Nehru of India as an advocate of nonalignment, or "positive neutrality." At the Bandung Conference of Asian and African nations in 1955, he emerged as a world figure.
7- At the _______, the Nazis put in place the Final Solution. At this meeting of Nazi officials on January 20, 1942, in a Berlin suburb, the Nazis planned the "final solution" to the so-called "Jewish question". The conference marked a turning point in Nazi policy toward the Jews. An earlier idea, to deport all of Europe’s Jews to the island of Madagascar, off of Africa, was abandoned as impractical in wartime. Instead, the newly planned final solution would entail rounding up all Jews throughout Europe, transporting them eastward, and organizing them into labor gangs. The work and living conditions would be sufficiently hard as to fell large numbers by "natural diminution"; those that survived would be "treated accordingly." The Nazi leaders understood that "evacuation to the east" was a euphemism for concentration camps and that the "final solution" was to be the systematic murder of Europe’s Jews, which is now known as the Holocaust.
8- An active policy of de-Stalinization was begun in 1956 by _______. On February 25, 1956, during the 20th Party Congress in Moscow, this Soviet leader delivered his memorable secret speech about the excesses of Stalin’s one-man rule, attacking the late Soviet ruler’s "intolerance, his brutality, his abuse of power." The spectacle of the first secretary of the Communist Party exposing the wrongful executions of the Great Purge of the 1930s and the excesses of Soviet police repression, after years of fearful silence, had far-reaching effects that he himself could barely have foreseen. The resulting "thaw" in the Soviet Union saw the release of millions of political prisoners and the "rehabilitation" of many thousands more who had perished. Inevitably, the de-Stalinization movement had repercussions in the communist countries of Eastern Europe, especially Hungary. Yet this leader's decision to crush the Hungarian Revolution by force came largely because of the Hungarian premier Imre Nagy’s decision to withdraw from the Warsaw Pact. Aside from this sanguinary exception, this leader allowed a considerable amount of freedom to the European communist parties.
9- The ________ brought change to Czechoslovakia. In late 1989, a wave of democratization swept through Eastern Europe with the encouragement of the leader of the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev. Czechoslovakia’s Communist leadership found itself confronted by mass demonstrations in Prague opposed to its policies, and the party soon gave in to the demands for reform. In December, the Communists formed a coalition government with non-Communist opposition groups. A multiparty political system was written into law, the writer and former dissident Vaclav Havel became the country’s new president, and free elections to the Federal Assembly were held in June 1990, with non-Communists winning resounding majorities. With the end of Communist rule and the reemergence of true multiparty democracy, disagreements between the two halves of the country escalated. In particular, Slovaks resisted the Czechs’ preference for rapid privatization of the country’s state-run industries. The results of parliamentary elections in June 1992 highlighted these differences, and talks between Czech and Slovak leaders later that year resulted in the peaceful dissolution of the Czechoslovak federation and the creation of two new countries, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, on January 1, 1993.
10- According to Confucian tradition, the most honorable class among the peasants, artisans, and merchants was the ______. The scholar-gentry were deemed fit to rule because of their education. The peasants, the majority of the people, were vital for food production. The artisans were allowed artistic expression. Merchants were viewed as caring only for profits and not creating anything of value.