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Posted by Elizabeth Napp on 2/28/2013 8:40:00 AM
Word Bank: Xiongnu, Tito, Paul, Jati, Taliban, Africa, "Prague Spring", Buddha, Brezhnev, Deng Xiaoping
1- The government of Muhammad Najibullah, who had been put in place in Afghanistan in 1986, was finally overthrown in 1996 by the _______. The Soviets had invaded Afghanistan in 1979 to support an unpopular communist regime. In 1986, amid continuing hostilities between the Islamic resistance and Soviet forces, the Afghan prime minister was ousted by the Soviets for his ineffectiveness and replaced by the former chief of the Afghan Secret Police, Mohammad Najibullah. However, fighting continued and eventually, this group of Islamic fundamentalists rose to power in Afghanistan.
2- Alexander Dubcek’s _________ promised "socialism with a human face". This brief period of liberalization in Czechoslovakia under Alexander Dubcek in 1968 granted the press greater freedom of expression and rehabilitated victims of political purges during the Joseph Stalin era. Many Czechs, however, wanted real democracy. The Soviet Union and other members of the Warsaw Pact viewed these demands as counterrevolutionary. Soviet armed forces quickly occupied the country and ended this brief period of "socialism with a human face".
3- The communist Yugoslavian leader, Josip Broz - more popularly known as _______, refused to follow Russian direction in foreign policy and was eventually expelled from the Soviet bloc in 1948. He was the chief architect of the "second Yugoslavia," a socialist federation that lasted from World War II until 1991 and he was the first Communist leader in power to defy Soviet hegemony. He was a backer of independent roads to socialism (sometimes referred to as "national communism") and a promoter of the policy of nonalignment (a policy of neutrality) between the two hostile blocs in the Cold War.
4- The _______ Doctrine was also known as the Doctrine of Limited Sovereignty. After the invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968, the Soviet leadership justified the use of force in Prague under this Doctrine. It stated that Moscow had the right to intervene in any country where a communist government had been threatened. It also became the primary justification for the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979.
5- The situation wherein national boundaries were artificial conveniences that did not correspond to economic or ethnic divisions was most common in _______. European imperialists ultimately created national boundaries that still affect these nations today.
6- _______ brought free market reforms to China. As the most powerful individual in China from the death of Mao Zedong until his death in 1997, this individual restructured China’s economy. He abandoned many orthodox communist doctrines and attempted to incorporate elements of the free-enterprise system into the Chinese economy. As he noted, "Whether a cat is white or black makes no difference, as long as it catches mice."
7- The leading figure in the expansion of Christianity beyond Judaism was _______ of Tarsus. Although he spent many years persecuting Christians, he is often considered to be the second most important person in the history of Christianity. After his conversion, he directed much of his missionary activity to the conversion of Gentiles or non-Jews.
8- _______ believed that all life involves suffering; that desire is the cause of suffering; and that a life lived in accordance with the Noble Eightfold Path eliminates desire. The two main schools of this belief system are Theravada (also known as Hinayana) and Mahayana.
9- One of the biggest transformations of the Hindu caste system was the rise of guilds which essentially served as _______. Of course, the Hindu caste system has four Varnas or castes: Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, and Shudras with birth determining membership in each Varna and no mobility across caste lines during one's lifetime. However, in different parts of India, certain groups within varnas have claimed certain occupations. Within the Vaishyas Varna, for instance, there are these groups of bakers, sheep herders, metal workers, and so on.
10- The greatest military threat to the Han was the ________ Confederation. These nomadic pastoral people who at the end of the 3rd century B.C.E. formed a great tribal league was able to dominate much of Central Asia for more than 500 years. China’s wars against this Confederation, who were a constant threat to the country’s northern frontier throughout this period, led to the Chinese conquest of much of Central Asia.