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Posted by Elizabeth Napp on 2/27/2013 3:30:00 PM
Word Bank: Humanist, Tamerlane, Young Turks, Islam, Chandragupta Maurya, Mestizo, Camel, Aborigines, Mongols, Cuzco
1- The Abbasid dynasty finally came to an end in 1258 when they were overrun by the _______. Known as the golden age of Islam with advances in science, mathematics, and literature, this dynasty succeeded the Umayyad dynasty and controlled much of the Islamic world from 750-1258. Yet by the tenth century, Abbasid political unity had already begun to weaken and independent or semi-autonomous local dynasties were established in Egypt, Iran, and other parts of the realm. Of course, these nomadic invaders from the steppes of Central Asia brought the entire dynasty to its end.
2- Mahmud Ghazan was the most prominent of the Il-Khans to rule the Mongol dynasty in Persia. Reigning from 1295 to 1304, he is best known for the conversion of his state to _______ and his wars against Egypt. Ghazan reorganized the administration of the Il-Khanate to reflect its new official faith. He replaced traditional Mongol law with Sharia and adopted the faith’s military codes for the Mongol army. At Ghazan's death in 1304, virtually all Mongol elements in the Il-Khanate had been absorbed into this new religious culture.
3- _______, the Turkish ruler who weakened the Golden Horde, sacked Delhi, and launched campaigns in southwest Asia and Anatolia, was the last of the mighty conquerors of Central Asia to achieve military successes. In 1402, he captured the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I on the battlefield in 1402. Above all, he was a master of the military techniques developed by Genghis Khan, using every weapon in the military and diplomatic armory of the day. He never missed an opportunity to exploit the weakness (political, economic, or military) of the adversary or to use intrigue, treachery, and alliance to serve his purposes.
4- _______ moral philosophers believed that people could lead morally virtuous lives while participating in the world. This philosophy emphasized the human realm. Unlike medieval European society that emphasized religious life, Renaissance humanist philosophers emphasized the inherent worth and dignity of the individual.
5- One of the central factors in the establishment of trans-Saharan trade was the domestication of the ________. Around the fifth century, Berber-speaking people began crossing the Sahara Desert. From the eighth century onward, annual trade caravans followed routes later described by Arabic authors with minute attention to detail. Gold, sought from the western and central Sudan, was the main commodity of the trans-Saharan trade. The rise of the Soninke Empire of Ghana appears to be related to the beginnings of the trans-Saharan gold trade. This gold for salt trade was significant for the rise of the West African kingdoms of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai.
6- The first ruler to unify India was _________. He was the first emperor to unify most of India under one administration. Credited with saving the country from maladministration and freeing it from foreign domination, he fasted to death in sorrow for his famine-stricken people. Traditionally, Chandragupta was influenced to accept Jainism by the sage Bhadrabahu I, who predicted the onset of a 12-year famine. When the famine came, Chandragupta made efforts to counter it, but, dejected by the tragic conditions prevailing, he left to spend his last days in the service of Bhadrabahu at Shravana Belgola, a famous religious site in southwest India, where Chandragupta fasted to death.
7- The capital of the Inca Empire was ________. The Incas imposed order by taking hostages from the conquered tribes’ ruling classes; they conquered a vast empire on the Andes Mountains of South America; they engaged in terrace farming on the mountains; they used the quipu or a mnemonic aid consisting of small cords with knots; and they provided food and shelter for the sick, the widowed, and the orphaned.
8- The cultural and religious traditions of the Australian ________ did not diffuse much beyond their own region. Australia is the only continent where the entire indigenous population maintained a single kind of adaptation - hunting and gathering - into modern times. Although they have many cultural features in common with other hunter-gatherer peoples, these individuals are unique in the degree of contrast between the complexity of their social organization and religious life and the relative simplicity of their material technologies. They, also like the indigenous peoples of the Americas, were negatively affected by the introduction of European diseases.
9- The term _______ refers to an individual of indigenous and European parentage in colonial Latin America. In colonial Latin America, the social hierarchy ranked peninsulares or individuals born in the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) as the elite followed by creoles (born in the Americas of European ancestry), this group, and Native American Indians.
10- The _______ advocated universal suffrage, emancipation of women, and free public religion. These nationalists like Mustafa Kemal led to radical changes in Turkey, the nation that emerged from the ashes of the Ottoman Empire after World War I.