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Posted by Elizabeth Napp on 2/26/2013 12:00:00 PM
Word Bank: Vladimir Lenin, Sufis, Grand Canal, Theodor Herzl, Ibn Rushd, Cecil Rhodes, Emiliano Zapata, T.E. Lawrence, Ashoka, James Watt
1- ________ was the founder of Zionism. Witnessing the Dreyfus affair in France helped crystallize his belief in the importance of creating a Jewish state. In the Dreyfus affair, a Jewish officer named Alfred Dreyfus had been falsely charged with the crime of giving French military documents to German agents. The ensuing political controversy produced an outburst of anti-Semitism among the French public. The founder of Zionism said in later years that it was the Dreyfus affair that had made a Zionist out of him. He believed that so long as anti-Semitism existed, assimilation would be impossible, and the only solution for the majority of Jews would be organized emigration to a state of their own. Of course, he was not the first to conceive of a Jewish state. Orthodox Jews had traditionally invoked the return to Zion (Israel) in their daily prayers.
2- The Sui construction of the _______ would have important economic implications well into the 20th century. This series of waterways in eastern and northern China links Hangzhou with Beijing. Some 1,100 miles in length, it is the world’s longest man-made waterway. It was built to enable successive Chinese regimes to transport surplus grain from the agriculturally rich Yangtze) and Huai river valleys to feed the capital cities and large standing armies in northern China.
3- The Mauryan emperor _______ fought his bloodiest battle against the Kalinga. The sufferings that the war inflicted on the defeated people moved him to such remorse that he renounced armed conquests. It was at this time that he came in touch with Buddhism and adopted it. Under its influence and prompted by his own dynamic temperament, he resolved to live according to, and preach, the dharma (the teachings of the Buddha) and to serve his subjects and all humanity. Toward all religious sects he adopted a policy of respect and guaranteed them full freedom to live according to their own principles, but he also urged them to exert themselves for the "increase of their inner worthiness."
4- The _______ believed in an emotional and mystical union with Allah. Islamic mysticism is called ta-awwuf (literally, "to dress in wool") in Arabic, but it has been called Sufism in Western languages since the early 19th century. These Islamic mystics have been responsible for a large-scale missionary activity all over the world and have spread Islam to many lands.
5- ________ or Averroës was the Islamic thinker who studied Aristotle and whose thought, in turn, influenced the rise of European scholasticism (Scholasticism focused on offering detailed philosophical and rational justifications for religious belief). This influential Islamic religious philosopher integrated Islamic traditions with ancient Greek thought.
6- ________ was a Mexican agrarian rebel who fought for the goals of La Reforma. He fought in guerrilla actions in the Mexican Revolution and in the course of his campaigns; he distributed lands taken from the haciendas (large estates or plantations), which he frequently burned without compensation. He often ordered executions and expropriations, and his forces did not always abide by the laws of war. But he believed that the land belonged to those who worked the land. He said, "Tierra y Libertad."
7- ________ was a leading British imperialist who founded a colony in Africa. He was prime minister of Cape Colony (1890-96) and organizer of the giant diamond-mining company De Beers Consolidated Mines, Ltd. (1888). By his will he established the Rhodes scholarships at Oxford (1902). He spent much time planning and organizing the colony that was to bear his name; Rhodesia. He also dreamed of a Cairo to Cape Town railway line.
8- ________ improved the design of the steam engine. In fact, a unit of measurement of electrical and mechanical power is named in his honour. The steam engine can easily be considered the single most important invention of the entire industrial revolution. There is not one part of industry present in today's society that can be examined without coming across some type of reference or dependence upon the steam engine.
9- ________ worked with Ibn Ali Hussain to lead the Bedouins of Arabia against Ottoman rule. This British archaeological scholar was sent in 1916 as a liaison officer to join the Great Arab Revolt, led by Prince Feisal. He took money and guns and helped keep the Revolt alive. Using guerrilla tactics, he struck at Turkish lines of communication but avoided direct confrontation.
10- The main difference between the philosophies of Karl Marx and ________ was the Bolshevik leader’s belief that the working class or proletariat was incapable of developing revolutionary consciousness on its own. He argued that the proletariat revolution could only occur in a pre-industrial society such as Russia if stimulated by a small but dedicated group of visionaries. He believed in the necessity of a "vanguard of the revolution".