Quiz #61

Posted by Elizabeth Napp on 2/26/2013 8:20:00 AM

Indigenous Drum Another Quiz Dedicated To Anchor Dates in World History


Chronology: “The science that deals with measuring time by regular divisions and that assigns to events their proper dates.”

~ Merriam-Webster


This quiz is dedicated to dates everywhere!


“Dates” Bank:  1945, 1643-1715, 1453, 1960, 220-589, 1991, 1441-1888, 1498, 1931-1947, 1871


1-   From _______, the Atlantic Slave trade radically transformed the lives of captured Africans.  After Columbus’ voyages and the subsequent conquest of the Americas, African slaves replaced a dying indigenous population in the Americas.  The production on American plantations of tropical produce, of which sugar was the most important, and especially the marketing of this produce in Western Europe, were extremely profitable activities. But plantation agriculture in the tropics required large and regular supplies of cheap labor. America did not have these, but, just across the Atlantic, western Africa seemed to have relatively great quantities of productive labor. In the earliest years of this trade, the Portuguese had begun to transport some African slaves to supplement the meager labor resources of their own country (especially of the southern provinces they had reconquered from the Moors), and their own plantations in Madeira, the Cape Verde Islands, and, ultimately, on the islands of the Gulf of Guinea had come to be dependent on African slave labor. The Spaniards, and subsequently other Europeans, in America came to look to Africa to make good their labor shortage.


2-   In ________, the Ottomans conquered Constantinople.  The siege and conquest of Constantinople and its transformation into the Ottoman capital of Istanbul marked an important new stage in Ottoman history.  Due to its location on the crossroads between Europe and Asia, this former capital of the Byzantine Empire had been a thriving commercial city.  Moreover, the possession of Constantinople stimulated in Sultan Mehmed a desire to place under his dominion not merely the Islamic and Turkic worlds but also a re-created Byzantine Empire and, perhaps, the entire world of Christendom.


3-   From _______, Buddhism spread in China.  This Indian religion, founded by Siddhartha Gautama in the 5th century B.C.E., stressed the causation and cessation of suffering.  With the collapse of the Han Dynasty in China and a subsequent period of disunity, this foreign religion found increasing favor among the Chinese.  Perhaps it was its Eightfold Path; a path to ending suffering that appealed to the Chinese in a difficult time. 


4-   In _______, Vasco da Gama arrived in India after circumnavigating Africa.  This Portuguese navigator opened up the sea route from Western Europe to Asia by way of the Cape of Good Hope.  Of course, this led to the Portuguese actively entering Indian Ocean trade and through the use of gunpowder weapons, controlling significant aspects of the trade.  It also led to other Europeans following da Gama’s route and directly entering the lucrative trade with Asia.


5-   From _______, Louis XIV reigned in France.  This absolute monarch known for his famous comment, "L'état, c'est moi" or "I am the state," made it abundantly clear that he ruled without any limits to his power.  Of course, later in history during the Age of Reason, philosophers like Montesquieu would challenge absolutism and argue for a separation of powers.  But when Louis XIV reigned, it was believed that kings ruled by divine right and as such, no person or document could limit a king’s power, at least not in France.  Of course, the English had managed to attempt to limit the king’s power through the medieval document known as the Magna Carta and later in France; a revolution would eventually limit the king’s power and lead to the execution of Louis XVI.  Sometimes "L'état, c'est moi" is challenged.


6-   In _______, the year that World War II ended, a new peace-keeping organization was created. The United Nations was the second multipurpose international organization established in the 20th century that was worldwide in scope and membership. Its predecessor, the League of Nations, was created by the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 and disbanded in 1946. Headquartered in New York City, the United Nations also has offices in Geneva, Vienna, and other cities.  In addition to maintaining peace and security, other important objectives of the United Nations include developing friendly relations among countries based on respect for the principles of equal rights and self-determination of peoples; achieving worldwide cooperation to solve international economic, social, cultural, and humanitarian problems; respecting and promoting human rights; and serving as a center where countries can coordinate their actions and activities toward these various ends.


7-   In ________, the Soviet Union collapsed.  The communist system had proved ineffective.  Under the leadership of Mikhail Gorbachev, the Soviet Union’s last leader, the country was in a situation of severe stagnation. Recognizing this, Gorbachev introduced reforms. On one level, he initiated a policy of glasnost, or freedom of speech. On the other level, he began a program of economic reform known as perestroika, or rebuilding. What Gorbachev did not realize was that by giving people complete freedom of expression; he was unwittingly powerful emotions that had been pent up for decades.  Ultimately, with increased freedoms, people voiced their desire to be freed from communist rule.    


8-   From _______, Mohandas K. Gandhi led nonviolent resistance to British imperialism in India.  Gandhi believed in Satyagraha or a truth force that would ultimately triumph.  Using nonviolent tactics like boycotts and civil disobedience, Gandhi made it abundantly clear that a handful of British administrators could not control millions of Indians if those Indians refused to cooperate.  Indeed, that is what Gandhi organized: nonviolent noncooperation campaigns like the boycott of British cloth and the illegal making of salt.  Ironically, a pinch of salt did topple the British Empire in India.


9-   _______ is sometimes referred to as the Year of Africa.  Yes, in one momentous year, 17 African nations gained independence from European colonial rule.  Indeed by the end of this year, there would be a total of twenty-seven independent African nations. Of course, European engagement in Africa began in the mid-15th century when Portuguese traders came in search of gold. By the end of the next century, the Portuguese were trading in African slaves (with many ultimately sent to the Americas), but large-scale colonization did not occur until later. In the late 1800s, explorers uncovered the riches of the continent's interior, including diamonds, rubber, and iron, setting off what became known as the "scramble for Africa."  Finally, by this year, European colonization was coming to an end.


10- In ________, Germany was unified.  It is important to remember that when the United States announced its independence from Great Britain in 1776, Central Europe was a fragmented area of roughly 300 sovereign, independent states (kingdoms, duchies, principalities, free cities, etc.). The German states were bound together in a loose political entity known as the Holy Roman Empire, which dated to the era of Charlemagne in the 800s. By the late eighteenth century, the Holy Roman Empire was, as Voltaire remarked, "Neither holy, nor Roman, nor an Empire."  Under the leadership of Otto von Bismarck, the Prime Minister of Prussia, German unification was achieved by the force of Prussia ("Blood and Iron"), and enforced from the top-down, meaning that it was not an organic movement that was fully supported and spread by the popular classes but instead was a product of Prussian royal policies.