• Shinto shrines are usually located near mountains or lakes.
• The Jordan River is a site of many Christian baptisms.
Which conclusion is most valid based on these statements related to belief systems?
(1) The Middle East was the birthplace of these belief systems.
(2) Water plays an important role in these belief systems.
(3) Pilgrimages to mountainous regions are encouraged by these belief systems.
(4) Understanding nature is a requirement of these belief systems.
(1) Welcoming foreign ideas and influences
(2) Mixing Western religions with traditional Chinese philosophies
(3) Controlling how contact occurs with other cultures
(4) Building the Grand Canal to expand trade within China
religions, wrote few books or dramas, and gave the world no new crops or
methods of agriculture. Their own craftsmen could not weave cloth, cast
metal, make pottery, or even bake bread. They manufactured neither porcelain
nor pottery, painted no pictures, and built no buildings. Yet, as their
army conquered culture after culture, they collected and passed all
of these skills from one civilization to the next. . . .
— Jack Weatherford
This passage leads to the conclusion that the Mongols
(1) Rejected technology
(2) Were a peaceful people
(3) Were urbanized
(4) Contributed to cultural diffusion
Private Archie Surfleet, February 8th, 1918 —
We have been in camp near the wood at Écurie
for some days now and a more miserable existence
it would be hard to imagine.
There is nothing but unrest and uncertainty and
everyone here is absolutely fed up to the teeth.
— Malcolm Brown, Tommy Goes to War
Which hypothesis can best be supported by this passage?
(1) Allied forces were on the verge of winning the war.
(2) Technology had created a military stalemate.
(3) Revolution in Russia hastened the end of the war.
(4) Conditions contributed to low troop morale.
causes of terrorism is almost certain to extend the Age of Terrorism, it is
not clear that they really can be eradicated. To appease the extremists
might be easy but may not work. To allow them to win would be to accept
the supremacy of evil. To promote democracy and open government might be
the ultimate solution, but it stands on a shaky conceptual foundation
of untested assumptions about the nature of the world and diverse cultures.
Unfortunately, the world is at a point where it can see the danger from
terrorism but not the cure. Worse still, a cure may not exist.
— Steven Metz, “Can Terrorism Be Cured?”
The author of this 2006 passage concludes that terrorism
(1) Has failed to take root
(2) Requires a strong military response
(3) Is extremely difficult to defeat
(4) Will be overcome through diplomacy
(1) Military strategies to defeat opponents
(2) Constitutions to define political powers
(3) Policies to increase religious persecution
(4) Legal changes to protect human rights
Muhammad after his death in A.D. 632. Some followers believed his
successor should be chosen by tribal consensus, and they named one of
Muhammad’s inner circle as the first caliph, or spiritual leader.
But others thought the successor should come directly from the Prophet’s family,
namely his cousin and son-in- law Ali. . . .
Source: National Geographic, June 2004
The situation described in this passage led to the
(1) Pogroms in Russia
(2) Fall of Constantinople
(3) Division of Sunnis and Shiites
(4) Tensions between Protestants and Catholics
• British officials partition India.
• Hutus and Tutsis fight in Rwandan civil war.
One way in which these events are similar is that each resulted in the
(1) Establishment of uniform legal codes
(2) Emigration of people from their homelands
(3) Intervention of coalition military forces
(4) Acceptance of new political boundaries
“Coca-Cola Accused of Wasting Precious Water in India”
“Competition for Control of Cobalt Mines Causes Violence in Congo”
These headlines best illustrate the economic concept of
(3) Boycott of goods
(4) Scarcity of resources
(1) convert salt water to freshwater
(2) harness natural forces to produce energy
(3) provide fertilizers for agricultural production
(4) connect small bodies of water to larger bodies