(1) protect Japan from European influence
(2) increase Japanese agricultural production
(3) eliminate Japan’s influence on Southeast Asia
(4) destroy traditional Japanese culture
(1) pursuit of imperialistic goals
(2) reaction to foreign invasions
(3) institution of five-year plans
(4) need for a warm-water port
(1) marked the end of the aggressive expansion
of these nations
(2) demonstrated the weakness of the League of
(3) reestablished the balance of power in the
(4) led to the Long March
(1) a lack of natural resources
(2) a plan to end unequal treaties
(3) the need to increase cultural diffusion
(4) the desire to spread communism
(1) isolation and nationalism
(2) capitalism and democracy
(3) revolution and absolutism
(4) reform and modernization
“Tokyo Is Firebombed”
“Atom Bomb Dropped on Nagasaki”
Which period of Japanese history is associated
with these headlines?
(1) Tokugawa shogunate
(2) Meiji Restoration
(3) reign of Emperor Hirohito
(4) Japan’s economic miracle
(1) the beginning of World War II in Asia and
(2) a meeting at Yalta between the United States
and the Soviet Union
(3) a conference at Munich for European leaders
(4) the withdrawal of Britain and France from
(1) use the Torah to establish law codes
(2) stress the importance of the Eightfold Path
(3) believe that spirits exist in nature
(4) base social rank on a caste system
(2) free trade
This paragraph from a 1945 Allied leaflet warned
(1) Czechs of a German invasion
(2) Americans in Hawaii of a Japanese attack
(3) Koreans of a Russian invasion
(4) Japanese civilians of a United States attack
(1) political decentralization
(2) revolutionary democratization
(3) reactionary social change
(4) innovative industrial development
• The Tokugawa shogun issued the Act of
Seclusion in 1636.
One way in which these historical occurrences are
similar is that both led to increased
(1) social mobility
(3) cultural diffusion
(1) They attacked the British navy.
(2) They opened more ports to trade.
(3) They increased the power of the shogun.
(4) They allowed the importation of opium into
(1) end reparation payments
(2) create a buffer zone
(3) spread Buddhism
(4) obtain natural resources
(1) Abundant arable land has led to prosperity.
(2) Possession of nuclear weaponry has assured a
(3) Economic development has occurred without
(4) A lack of natural resources has not limited
(3) individual abilities
(4) education and training
(1) The power of the emperor was absolute and
(2) The real power was held by foreign countries.
(3) Actual power was held by the shogun.
(4) Political power was in the hands of the
(1) dominate the Indian Ocean
(2) obtain valuable natural resources
(3) stop the spread of communism
(4) prevent Spanish colonization
(1) limited the power of the monarch
(2) provided for universal suffrage
(3) created a theocracy
(4) equalized taxes
(1) isolating Russia from Japan
(2) protecting China from Mongol invaders
(3) preventing Europeans from colonizing
(4) serving as a cultural bridge between China
(1) Japan modernized its economy.
(2) Mongols invaded the islands of Japan.
(3) The Japanese government adopted an
(4) Buddhism became the official religion of
(1) spread Shinto beliefs
(2) protect human rights
(3) acquire natural resources
(4) establish theocratic governments
(2) ethnic conflict
(1) building a modern transportation system
(2) limiting the number of ports open to foreign
(3) forcing families to settle on collective farms
(4) establishing a system of trade guilds
(1) military aggression
(4) the domino theory
(1) Large plains served as invasion routes for
(2) Arid deserts and mountains caused isolation
(3) Lack of natural resources led to a policy of
(4) Close proximity to Africa encouraged extensive
trade with Egypt.
(1) colonization of Japan by the United States
(2) transfer of spheres of influence to China
(3) introduction of Christianity to Japanese
(4) opening of trade and diplomatic relations
(1) acquire natural resources in Manchuria and
(2) control trade and markets in Southeast Asia
(3) end Japan’s policy of isolationism
(4) remove foreign invaders from Japanese soil
— Ronald Takai
The situation described in this passage was the
direct result of which World War II event?
(1) blitz of London
(2) attack on Pearl Harbor
(3) D-Day invasion of Normandy
(4) bombing of Hiroshima
(1) Japan became more isolated from world
(2) Demand for natural resources increased.
(3) Japan became a colonial possession of China.
(4) Traditional practices of Bushido were
(1) frequent monsoons
(2) large deserts
(3) mountainous topography
(4) tropical climate
(1) The Spanish government required that gold
found in its colonies be brought directly to
(2) Japan closed its ports to trade with other
(3) France, Germany, Belgium, and Great
Britain negotiated to divide various areas of
Africa into colonies.
(4) The British ruled much of India through the
control of local rulers.
(1) Location has made it easy to invade.
(2) The irregular coastline has many natural
(3) Large plains are its primary physical feature.
(4) Earthquakes do not threaten the islands.
(1) strengthened the power of the Shogunate
(2) decreased the level of pollution
(3) modernized transportation
(4) increased the number of small farms
(1) loyalty to their military leader
(2) devotion to their nation-state
(3) service to their church
(4) allegiance to their families
(1) practice filial piety
(2) worship spirits in nature
(3) are monotheistic
(4) are required to make pilgrimages
• Most Indonesians study the Koran.
• Catholicism is the dominant religion in Latin
These statements illustrate a result of
(2) cultural diffusion
(3) economic nationalism
(1) Hinduism and Confucianism
(2) Islam and Judaism
(3) Shintoism and animism
(4) Christianity and Buddhism
(1) rejected Western ideas
(2) used its access to the sea for fishing
(3) relied on traditional isolationist policies
(4) reformed its political and economic systems
(1) engaging in overseas expansion
(2) growing crops suited to desert climates
(3) building terraces into the mountainsides
(4) reclaiming land from the sea by building
— Tadatoshi Akiba, Mayor of Hiroshima
With which issue is Mayor Akiba most concerned?
(1) depletion of the ozone layer
(2) treatment of infectious diseases
(3) nuclear proliferation
(4) international terrorism
(1) Shinto and animism
(2) Hinduism and Confucianism
(3) Judaism and Christianity
(4) Islam and Buddhism
Eiichi Kiyooka, trans., The Autobiography of
Fukuzawa Yukichi, The Hokuseido Press, 1934
Which set of events is most closely associated
with the nation described in this passage?
(1) end of the Opium War - creation of
European spheres of influence
(2) end of the Tokugawa Shogunate - beginning
of the Meiji Restoration
(3) fall of the Manchus - rise of Sun Yixian
(4) imperialism in China - start of World War II
(1) Greek and Roman
(2) Chinese and Korean
(3) Egyptian and Mesopotamian
(4) Indian and Persian
(1) the economic isolation of China and Japan
(2) an increase in Chinese influence in Asia
(3) the beginning of democratic governments in
China and Japan
(4) an increase in Western trade and influence in
(1) Japan became a modern industrial nation.
(2) The Tokugawa Shogunate seized control of
(3) Russia signed a mutual trade agreement.
(4) Japan stayed politically isolated.
• In the 1500s and 1600s, control of the Strait of
Malacca determined who traded in the Spice
• Because Japan is an island that is mostly mountainous, people live in densely populated areas
along the coast.
Which conclusion is best supported by these
(1) Major urban centers are found only along
(2) The geography of a nation or region influences
(3) Without mountains and rivers, people cannot
develop a culture.
(4) The spread of new ideas is discouraged by
trade and conquest.
(1) Byzantine traders brought the Justinian Code
(2) Roman legions introduced Christianity to
(3) Indian monks brought Islam to the Middle
(4) Chinese ideas and practices spread into
Korea and Japan.
(1) appeasement policies
(2) resistance movements
(3) Russification efforts
(4) human rights violations
(1) a decentralized political system
(2) religious diversity
(3) an increased emphasis on education
(4) the development of a wealthy middle class
• Japanese ships are strictly forbidden to leave
for foreign countries.
• No Japanese is permitted to go abroad. If there
is anyone who attempts to do so secretly, he
must be executed. The ship so involved must
be impounded and its owner arrested, and the
matter must be reported to the higher
• If any Japanese returns from overseas after
residing there, he must be put to death. . . .
• Any informer revealing the whereabouts of the
followers of padres (Christians) must be
rewarded accordingly. If anyone reveals the
whereabouts of a high ranking padre, he must
be given one hundred pieces of silver. For
those of lower ranks, depending on the deed,
the reward must be set accordingly. . . .
Source: David John Lu, Sources of Japanese History,
These rules reflect the Japanese policy of
(1) an increase in military production and
strengthened military forces
(2) a reduction in tensions with neighboring
(3) a restructuring of government that included
popularly elected monarchs
(4) a decrease in the reliance on industrialization
— Alfred Stead, Great Japan: A Study of National
Efficiency, John Lane Co., 1906
Which occurrence in Japanese history is
described in the passage?
(1) Meiji Restoration
(2) Tokugawa shogunate
(3) assimilation of Buddhism
(4) adoption of Confucian practices
• Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis formed, 1936
• Japan invades China, 1937
• United States places embargo on scrap iron,
steel, and oil exports to Japan, 1941
Which event occurred immediately after this
series of developments?
(1) Manchuria became a Japanese protectorate.
(2) Pearl Harbor was attacked.
(3) The Japanese fleet was destroyed.
(4) The atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima.
(1) Only one God rules the universe.
(2) Periodic fasting is essential to spiritual purity.
(3) Spirits exist in both living and nonliving
(4) All suffering is caused by desire and
• Ancient Egyptians wrote on papyrus, a reed
found growing near the Nile River.
• A major feature of Japanese art is the
relationship between humans and nature.
Which concept is illustrated in these statements?
(1) role of education in the ancient world
(2) development of traditional government
(3) effect of artistic expression on religion
(4) impact of geography on cultural development
(1) Japan experienced earthquakes and volcanic
(2) The Japanese developed a nature-based
belief called Shinto.
(3) Tsunamis and typhoons sometimes destroyed
coastal Japanese villages.
(4) Mountains are found throughout the islands
(1) the mountains that cover much of the Korean
(2) the environmental damage caused by
overfishing in the Pacific
(3) their traditional respect for the sea
(4) their location between powerful neighbors:
Russia, China, and Japan
(1) recruit more men for its army
(2) acquire supplies of oil and rubber
(3) satisfy the Japanese people’s need for spices
(4) prevent the United States from entering the war
(2) spirits in nature
(3) holy books
(1) need to maintain a traditional society
(2) desire for a modern industrialized society
(3) colonization by Western nations
(4) encouragement of foreign investment
(1) admired the economic power of China
(2) lacked coal, iron, and other important
(3) wanted to unify the governments of East Asia
(4) feared the expansion of Nazi Germany in the
B. Allies invade Europe on D-Day.
C. Germany invades Poland.
D. Japanese attack Pearl Harbor.
Which sequence shows the correct chronological
order of these World War II events, from earliest
(1) A, B, C, D
(2) B, A, D, C
(3) C, D, B, A
(4) D, C, A, B
(1) had greater deposits of natural resources
(2) encountered government resistance to
(3) used isolationism to increase its economic
(4) duplicated the factory systems used in China
(1) navigable rivers
(2) irregular coastline
(3) tropical rain forests
(4) abundant mineral resources
• Islam extends from the Middle East into Spain
by A.D. 732.
• Catholic and Protestant missionaries bring
Christianity to Africa in the 1800s.
Each of these statements reflects the concept of
(1) cultural diffusion
(3) civil disobedience
(1) Japan has been limited in industrial development
by the occupation of the United States.
(2) Japan has developed a strong economic base
built on the export of manufactured goods.
(3) Japan has withdrawn from the world economic
community and has practiced economic self-sufficiency.
(4) Japan has concentrated on rebuilding its
(1) help the ruler control his people
(2) guide the behavior of a warrior class
(3) benefit all the social classes
(4) support revolutionary ideas
(1) artifacts of Mansa Musa’s Timbuktu
(2) the accomplishments of the Protestant
(3) early Japanese culture
(4) the achievements of Renaissance Florence
(1) a fear that Japan would be colonized by
(2) the failure of Japanese expansion
(3) the Shogun’s conversion to Christianity
(4) a desire to stay isolated
(1) natural resources
(2) warm-water ports
(3) manufacturing plants
(4) freedom of the seas
(1) success of defensive alliances
(2) fear of communist expansion
(3) support for the Treaty of Versailles
(4) failure of the League of Nations