A. Development of medical encyclopedias
B. Development of algebra and astronomical tables
C. Production of cotton textiles and woolen carpets
D. Production of literature, calligraphy, and geometric art
(1) Achievements of Feudal Societies
(2) Inventions During the Neolithic Revolution
(3) Issues of the Protestant Reformation
(4) Contributions of the Islamic Civilization
(1) Byzantine Empire
(2) Carthaginian Empire
(3) Islamic Empire
(4) Persian Empire
— St. Bernard of Clairvaux
This statement was most likely used to encourage
(1) repel a Viking invasion
(2) stop advancement of the Huns in Europe
(3) join the Crusades
(4) force Russians to convert to Catholicism
(A) Location has made it easy to invade.
(B) The irregular coastline has made many natural harbors.
(C) Large plains are its primary physical feature.
(D) Earthquakes do not threaten the islands.
(1) Roman Empire collapsed
(2) Renaissance began
(3) city of Constantinople fell
(4) Mongols invaded
• Russians accepted the teachings of the
Orthodox Christian Church.
• Onion-shaped domes dotted the skyline of
Which term is most closely associated with these
(3) cultural diffusion
(1) were used to defeat Kublai Khan
(2) contributed to economic growth and cultural
(3) increased contact with the Americas
(4) led to social equality between men and
(1) traders from China
(2) conquering Mongol invaders
(3) Vikings from northern Europe
(4) missionaries from the Byzantine Empire
(1) emergence of the Russian Orthodox Church
(2) division of the Roman Empire
(3) building of the Hagia Sophia
(4) fall of Constantinople
• Development of algebra
• Use of calligraphy as an art form
Which Golden Age is most closely associated with
(1) modern irrigation methods
(2) the three-field system
(3) the enclosure movement
(4) slash-and-burn agriculture
(1) holy war between Christians and Muslims
(2) process in which goods are traded for other
(3) division of political power between three
(4) system in which land is exchanged for military
service and loyalty
A. People become more aware of the outside world.
B. Merchant and craft guilds help commercial centers grow into cities.
C. Trade routes develop to supply the growing demand for new products.
D. Monarchs centralize control and increase their power.
(1) Seljuk Turks Dominate Europe
(2) Democracy Ends in Eastern Europe
(3) Feudalism Declines in Western Europe
(4) Religion Becomes Powerful Force in Europe
(1) encomienda system of Latin America
(2) guild system of Europe in the Middle Ages
(3) civil service system of China during the Tang
(4) caste system of India
(1) Europe’s population severely declined.
(2) Democracy in the Middle East grew.
(3) Cultural diffusion increased.
(4) Slavery was eliminated.
(1) China and southern Africa
(2) the Atlantic Ocean and the Baltic Sea
(3) the Inca Empire and the Aztec Empire
(4) Asia and eastern Europe
(1) spreading Hinduism throughout the region
(2) supporting the Catholic Church
(3) defeating the Mongols at Kiev
(4) preserving Greek and Roman culture
(1) Muslim control of Jerusalem ended.
(2) Feudalism began in western Europe.
(3) Cultural exchanges between the Middle East
and Europe grew.
(4) Christians and Muslims achieved a lasting
(1) Japan experienced earthquakes and volcanic
(2) The Japanese developed a nature-based
belief called Shinto.
(3) Tsunamis and typhoons sometimes destroyed
coastal Japanese villages.
(4) Mountains are found throughout the islands
(1) Crusades and eastern Mediterranean trading
(2) merchant guilds and the Industrial
(3) Middle Passage and the Columbian
(4) conquests of the Germanic tribes and trade
along the Silk Road
(1) a decentralized political system
(2) religious diversity
(3) an increased emphasis on education
(4) the development of a wealthy middle class
(1) established a direct trade route with Ghana
(2) defended the empire against the spread of
(3) brought Roman Catholicism to his empire
(4) preserved and transmitted Greek and Roman
(1) loyalty to their military leader
(2) devotion to their nation-state
(3) service to their church
(4) allegiance to their families
(1) Technical advances would have been greater
if the Tang dynasty had lasted longer.
(2) China’s best emperors came from the Tang
(3) The Tang emperors granted government jobs
to scholars who passed examinations.
(4) The culture of the Tang dynasty was superior
to that of the Han dynasty.
(1) amount of money earned
(2) level of education achieved
(3) number of slaves owned
(4) amount of land possessed
(1) impact of the Crusades
(2) effects of the barter system
(3) growth of the Maya Empire
(4) rise of Charlemagne
(1) preserved many ancient Chinese legal
decrees in writing
(2) served as a model for European legal systems
(3) became the first democratic constitution
(4) united Muslim and Roman thought
• Taller and larger cathedrals emphasize the
grandeur and glory of God.
These statements best describe elements of
(1) the Four Noble Truths
(2) Chinese pagodas
(3) Gothic architecture
(4) Greek ideas
(1) a representative government
(2) economic equality for all
(3) protection of individual rights
(4) an exchange of land for services