(A) for describing the chemical states of matter
(B) elaborating the theory of elliptical orbits
(C) devising the first workable microscope
(D) mathematically proving the heliocentric theory
(E) inventing the telescope
(A) Respect for one's ancestors as critical to proper behavior
(B) Unquestioning obedience to the ruler
(C) Belief in the Mandate of Heaven
(D) Emphasis on harmony between humanity and nature
(E) Precedence of one's duty to one's family over all other obligations
(A) Western Europe
(B) Eastern Mediterranean
(A) appointed administrators
(B) independent merchants
(C) written constitutions
(D) chartered companies
(E) elected presidents
(A) He wished to find a new route to Europe in order to participate in European trade.
(B) He sailed to ports on the Indian Ocean coastline, including those in East Africa.
(C) He crossed the Indian Ocean but did not land on the African coast.
(D) He explored unknown regions and seas, though his ships were tiny and supplies inadequate.
(E) He avoided contact with overseas Chinese communities.
(A) Both focused on porcelain manufacturing.
(B) Both incorporated forced labor.
(C) Both redistributed land to peasants.
(D) Both produced grain for the European market.
(E) Both focused on small farm-to-market agriculture.
(A) directing religious festivals
(B) managing household supplies and finances
(C) represnting their families in courts of law
(D) training their sons to be warriors
(E) overseeing village schools and hospitals
(A) Textiles, iron, and coal
(B) Textiles, automobiles, and plastics
(C) Airplanes, ships, and radios
(D) Electricity, automobiles, and airplanes
(E) Electricity, steel, and chemicals
(A) widespread trade in opium
(B) the encouragment of slavery
(C) extensive conquest of territory
(D) small military enclaves along coastlines
(E) competition among imperialist powers