A) the inevitability of American independence from Britain.
B) the superiority of the U.S. Constitution.
C) the inevitability of American dominion over all of North America.
D) the superiority of the North to the South during the Civil War.
E) all of the above.
A) the balance of power between the president and the Congress.
B) the balance of power between the state governments and the federal government.
C) conflicting claims between the individual and society.
D) the rights of immigrant labor versus the rights of slave labor.
E) how to fulfill ideals of the Enlightenment.
A) freed all slaves in the United States.
B) freed all slaves who took up arms against the South.
C) freed only the slaves in the rebel states.
D) freed all slaves in the western territories.
E) promised to free all slaves at the end of the Civil War.
A) supporters of the Catholic church and anti-cleric revolutionaries.
B) liberal and socialist programs for social reform.
C) supporters of Emiliano Zapata and supporters of Pancho Villa.
D) Mexican business interests and foreign investors.
E) conservative landowners and landless peasants.
A) construction of rail and telegraph lines.
B) industrial expansion.
C) paved streets and electric lights in Mexico city.
D) improved public health and education.
E) significant foreign investment in the Mexican economy.
A) elected biracial governments for the first time in U.S. history.
B) remained free, but lost many of their civil rights.
C) became independent farmers and landowners.
D) gained control of their own schools and local institutions.
A) the market for manufactured goods was too small.
B) most goods were manufactured on self-sufficient haciendas.
C) state control discouraged foreign investment.
D) there were insufficient natural resources in Latin America.
E) there wasn’t enough cheap labor in Latin America.
A) foreign investment.
B) cheap labor provided by immigration.
C) the transcontinental railroad.
D) lack of competition from Europe.
E) abundant natural resources, including coal and iron.
A) an elite conspiracy against lower classes.
B) the ignorance and apathy of the lower classes.
C) sharp divisions among the creole classes.
D) the caudillos’ reign of terror.
A) France’s loss of its Canadian colonies in the Seven Years’ War.
B) the flight to Canada of French Protestants in the eighteenth century.
C) French citizens fleeing the Napoleonic wars.
D) French fur traders being driven out of the United States.