A) he was a unifying force between Serbia and the Austro-Hungarian empire.
B) his death caused Russia to rush to the defense of Austria.
C) his death caused Germany to rush to the defense of Serbia.
D) his death ended plans for national self-determination within the Austro-Hungarian empire.
E) his death brought to a head the tensions underlying the alliances in eastern and western Europe.
A) a quick invasion of Great Britain and destruction of the British navy.
B) a quick invasion of Russia so that the war would only be fought on one front.
C) a blockade of France to starve that country into submission.
D) a swift knockout of France followed by defensive action against Russia.
E) simultaneous invasions of France, Britain, and Russia with heavy reliance on the navy.
A) machine guns.
B) armored tanks.
D) poisonous gas.
E) diesel-powered submarines.
A) more fluid, as the Germans made inroads into Russia.
B) a deadlock, with German and Austrian troops trapped for months in trenches.
C) more encouraging for the Allies, especially on the Balkan Peninsula.
D) not as deadly, with far fewer casualties.
E) over quickly.
A) the use of propaganda to inspire sacrifice.
B) the whole-hearted commitment of all citizens to the war effort.
C) the recognition of the importance of the home front in the war effort.
D) the targeting of civilians as a strategy of war.
E) the level of government control over production and distribution of goods.
A) the demands of total war actually reduced the opportunities for women.
B) women engaged in combat for the first time.
C) women in many countries received the vote in the years after the war.
D) women gained economic status that continued long after the war.
E) all of the above.
A) it sounded the death-knell of the Ottoman empire.
B) it demonstrated that the British navy was no match for German dreadnoughts.
C) this decisive battle finally broke the stalemate on the western front.
D) this British-directed debacle cost the lives of many Canadian, Australian, and New Zealand troops.
E) it demonstrated that, after the arrival of American troops, the Allies would win the war.
A) Bolsheviks stormed the Winter Palace.
B) an assassination attempt revealed that his family was in danger.
C) troops garrisoned in the capital mutinied.
D) German forces seized the Ukraine.
A) continued to use the police apparatus of the tsar.
B) continued policies that discriminated against minorities.
C) denied Russians the right to free speech and free press.
D) promised to continue the war to victory.
E) launched an all-attack on the workers’ soviets.
A) the revolution would be led by rural peasants, not industrial workers.
B) the revolution would be led by a small, highly disciplined party acting on behalf of the workers.
C) the revolution would be led by the intelligentsia acting on behalf of all Russia people.
D) the revolution would not succeed until Russian workers were joined by workers all over the world.
E) the revolution could not succeed if it alienated the church and the military.
A) its long-standing friendship with Great Britain.
B) the U.S. desire to acquire German colonies in the Pacific.
C) American prejudice against German immigrants.
D) the political ambition of Woodrow Wilson.
E) Germany’s resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare against the United States.
A) the Allies agreed to let ethnic self-determination set the boundaries of the Middle East.
B) Britain and France were determined to strip Germany of colonies and military power.
C) Russia was forced to cede much of Manchuria to Japan.
D) Woodrow Wilson gained acceptance of his Fourteen Points.
A) It was conceived by Woodrow Wilson.
B) It was rejected by the U.S. Congress.
C) It was designed to solve international disputes through arbitration.
D) It had no power to enforce its decisions.
E) It was dominated by the countries of Europe.
D) the Soviet Union.
A) allowed Britain and France to take the lands formerly held by the Ottoman empire into protective custody.
B) was acceptable to the Arabs as better than outright colonialism.
C) was one of Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points.
D) formed the basis for redrawing the boundaries of central and eastern Europe.
E) determined when and how Germany was to pay reparation to the Allies.