A) a combination of square and lateen sails.
B) a sternpost rudder.
C) a magnetic compass.
D) an astrolabe.
E) a sextant.
A) the search for raw materials and mineral resources.
B) the search for new lands to settle and cultivate.
C) population pressures in Europe.
D) the desire to trade directly with Asian markets.
E) the urge to extend Christianity beyond Europe.
A) the discovery of a northwest passage from Europe to Asia.
B) the first complete circumnavigation of the world.
C) mapping of Australia, New Zealand, and the islands of the South Pacific.
D) exploration of the coast of Alaska and the waters of the Arctic Ocean.
E) European colonization of the Philippines.
A) funds to outfit ships and hire crews.
B) commodities and money for trade.
C) direct government supervision.
D) the potential for tremendous profits.
E) heavily armed ships to back up their demands.
A) establishing settler colonies.
B) establishing a Dutch Reform mission to counter the Catholic presence in the Philippines.
C) building a plantation society on the island of Java.
D) dominating the spice trade through the Sundra Strait.
E) all of the above.
C) the Netherlands.
A) the French colonies in Canada.
B) the French trading posts in India.
C) Spanish Florida.
D) Cape Town from the Dutch.
E) Britain gained all of the above.
A) the introduction of infectious diseases.
B) the staggering loss of indigenous populations.
C) the introduction of domesticated animals such as cattle and horses.
D) the introduction of food crops such as wheat.
A) the densely populated urban centers.
B) poor hygiene and contaminated water.
C) lack of previous exposure that would build natural immunity.
D) lack of access to immunizations.
A) overall improvements in diet and nutrition.
B) steady population growth in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
C) more varied cuisine.
D) better forage for livestock.
E) South Africa.
A) Brazil and sugar.
B) Canada and fur.
C) India and cotton.
D) Japan and spices.
E) Peru and silver.