(A) Most people felt a devout, unquestioning allegiance to the Catholic Church.
(B) Many people were turning toward Calvinist forms of worship.
(C) Most people had become altogether apathetic about religion.
(D) Many people doubted the Catholic Church's ability to provide spiritual leadership.
(E) Most people were turning toward the teachings of Martin Luther.
(A) an emphasis on one's own geopolitical interests, rather than religious belief
(B) a sincere commitment to pacifistic principles
(C) the influence of religious faith on military decision making
(D) a relentless pursuit of harsh military treatment of civilians
(E) strict neutrality
(A) the Austrian Empire
(B) the Netherlands
(A) higher levels of political repression
(B) greater degree of religious intolerance
(C) rigid class structures
(D) elimination of poverty
(E) flexible social systems
(A) led to the triumph of the geocentric theory
(B) promoted the scientific theories of Aristotle and Galen
(C) built on Descartes's and Bacon's revival of the scientific method
(D) immediately swept away Catholicism's authority over intellectual affairs
(E) provided universal education for the population of Europe
(A) the Renaissance
(B) the Baroque
(A) One of the earliest advocates of capitalism was Adam Smith.
(B) The rise of capitalism paralleled the rapid growth of Europe's middle class.
(C) Capitalism operated according to the principle of economic competition.
(D) Capitalist theory favored the lessening of governmental control over economic activity.
(E) Capitalism involved greater governmental control over economic activity.
(A) A period of proto-industrialization during the 1600s and 1700s preceded the Industrial Revolution.
(B) The steam engine fueled industrial development during the late 1600s.
(C) There was almost no industrial or proto-industrial activity in Europe before the end of the 1700s.
(D) European industrialization was hindered by the rise of capitalism.
(E) Initiative on the part of the aristocracy was chiefly responsible for Europe's early industrialization.
(A) a complete rejection of religious faith
(B) a conviction that logic and reason were capable of solving social and political problems
(C) active advocacy of the rights of women to vote
(D) support of the established political order
(E) a deep faith in religious principles
(A) Thomas Hobbes
(D) all of the above
(E) none of the above