(A) political unity
(B) the consolidation of democracy
(C) political chaos
(D) steady strengthening of political power
(E) the weakening of Turkish control over Islamic lands
(A) They failed to govern vast and ethnically diverse lands effectively.
(B) They sold off too many parcels of land to feed their financial reserves.
(C) They became a caliphate.
(D) They forced Christianity on their occupied territories.
(E) They lost great numbers of men in the Crusades.
(B) Swahili city-states
I. was soon conquered by Arabs, who installed an administration that was controlled from Turkey
II. stopped acting as a trade center
III. became a key trade center and controlled a major communications network
IV. was led by Christians
A. III only
B. IV only
C. I, II, and III
D. III and IV
E. I and II only
(A) gold and its role in opposing the slave trade
(B) salt reserves and Islamic scholarship
(C) large harbor
(D) glass and ceramic architecture
(E) many Gothic churches
(A) crippled the Holy Roman Empire
(B) crushed the Mongols
(C) introduced Islam to the Middle East
(D) weakened the Byzantine Empire
(E) none of the above
(A) medieval Europe
(B) sub-Saharan Africa
(C) the Islamic world
(D) Central Asia
(E) Southeast Asia
(A) They practiced guerrilla warfare.
(B) They used radio communications.
(C) They used the stars to guide them.
(D) They stopped using horses in invasions.
(E) They had well-made gunpowder weaponry.
(A) They both believed in Christianity.
(B) They both studied the relationship between reason and faith.
(C) They both introduced astrology into their studies of metaphysics.
(D) They were both persecuted by their rulers.
(E) They were required to be members of the clergy.
(A) The Qu'ran forbids the worship of graven images.
(B) The Bible forbids the worship of graven images.
(C) Artists were not yet properly skilled to draw human figures.
(D) Geometric shapes were seen to be more godlike.