— Sidney W. Mintz, anthropologist
Based on this document, state one way Europe’s focus on the world changed after 1492.
To achieve his overall objective of making the Soviet Union a more open society, Gorbachev has formulated and is in the process of implementing a strategy of radical reform consisting of ten specific strategies:
1. Economy: Decentralization of decision making of state-owned enterprises including such decisions as product mix, prices, output, wages, employment, investment, research and development, domestic and international sales and marketing, and
incentives. Creation of new financial institutions to finance the expansion of Soviet enterprises. Authorization of private enterprises in the service sector of the economy.
2. Agriculture: Decentralization of state-owned farms and strengthening of agricultural cooperatives. Greater use of market incentives and an increase in the number of private farms. . . .
6. Democratization: Decentralization of the Communist party, the Soviet government, and the Soviet economy. Increased democracy in the workplace. Greater freedom of political dissent. Improved possibilities to emigrate from the Soviet Union. . . .
Source: Thomas H. Naylor, The Gorbachev Strategy, D.C. Heath and Co.
Based on this document, identify one change proposed by Gorbachev’s program.
Source: Robert Friedman, ed., The Life Millennium:
The 100 Most Important Events & People of The Past 1,000 Years, Time, 1998
Based on this document, state one effect of Gutenberg’s invention.
In Nagasaki, a smaller area of the city was actually destroyed than in Hiroshima, because the
hills which enclosed the target area restricted the spread of the great blast; but careful
examination of the effects of the explosion gave evidence of even greater blast effects than in
Hiroshima. Total destruction spread over an area of about 3 square miles. Over a third of the
50,000 buildings in the target area of Nagasaki were destroyed or seriously damaged. The complete destruction of the huge steel works and the torpedo plant was especially impressive. The steel frames of all buildings within a mile of the explosion were pushed away, as by a giant hand, from the point of detonation. The badly burned area extended for 3 miles in length. The hillsides up to a radius of 8,000 feet were scorched, giving them an autumnal appearance. . . .
Source: “The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki,” Manhattan Engineer District, United States Army, June 29, 1946
Based on this document, state one effect of the atomic bombings on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Source: Michael Berenbaum, The World Must Know: The History of the Holocaust as Told in the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Little, Brown and Co.
According to Michael Berenbaum, what was one way the Nazi Party attempted to control the thoughts of
the German people?
Source: Great Events: The Twentieth Century 1960–1968, Salem Press
Based on this excerpt from Great Events, state one impact the Cultural Revolution had on Chinese
During three decades, Botswana’s leaders have carefully guided what became the world’s
fastest-growing economy. They invested in roads, schools and clinics. In stark contrast to the
rulers of Angola and Congo, they created an African nation devoted to improving the lives of its
people. In 1965, only about half of primary school-aged children attended school. Today, 90 percent of that group is enrolled. Life expectancy, which was less than 50 at independence, is now near 70.*
Phones work in Botswana, potholes get repaired, garbage gets picked up, and a lively press
pokes fun at the government without fear. At $3,600 per year, the gross national product per capita is seven times higher than the average for sub-Saharan Africa. The standard of living is higher than in South Africa, Turkey or Thailand.
“Diamonds are not devils,” said Terry Lynn Karl, professor of political science at Stanford and
author of “The Paradox of Plenty,” (University of California Press, 1997), a book about the
poisonous mix of natural resources, big money and thieving elites in developing countries. “What matters is that there be a tradition of good government and compromise in place prior to
the exploitation of these resources.”. . .
* Correction: The United Nations says that because of AIDS, the figure has fallen sharply and is 41, no longer close to 70.
Source: Blaine Harden, “Africa’s Gems: Warfare’s Best Friend,” New York Times, April 6, 2000
Correction published April 17, 2000
According to Blaine Harden, what are two ways the sale of diamonds affected Botswana?
Source: Andrew Ure, The Philosophy of Manufactures: or, an Exposition of the Scientific, Moral, and
Commercial Economy of the Factory System of Great Britain, A. M. Kelley
According to this document, what is one way that steam engines helped the economy in Great Britain?
1. There is no one center of all the celestial [heavenly] circles or spheres [planets].
2. The center of the earth is not the center of the universe, but only of gravity and of the lunar
3. All the spheres [planets] revolve about the sun as their mid-point, and therefore the sun is
the center of the universe. . . .
— Nicholas Copernicus, The Commentariolus, (1510)
Source: Edward Rosen, Three Copernican Treatises, Columbia University Press
State one scientific belief of Copernicus that is being described in this passage.
. . . Because India has become impoverished by their Government. They take away our money from year to year. The most important posts are reserved for themselves. We are kept in a state of slavery. They behave insolently [disrespectfully] towards us and
disregard our feelings. . . .
Source: M. K. Gandhi, Indian Home Rule, Navajivan Publishing House
Based on the document, identify one criticism Gandhi expressed about British rule.