. . . Paleolithic men could not control their food supply. So long as they relied on foraging, hunting, fishing, and trapping, they were dependent on the natural food supply in a given area to keep from starving. But while Paleolithic men continued their food-gathering pattern of existence in Europe, Africa, and Australia, groups of people in the Near East began to cultivate edible plants and to breed animals. Often described as the “first economic revolution” in the history of man, this momentous change from a food-gathering to a food-producing economy initiated the Neolithic Age. Paleolithic man was a hunter; Neolithic man became a farmer and
herdsman. . . .
Source: T. Walter Wallbank, et al., Civilization: Past and Present, Scott, Foresman and Company
According to the authors of this passage, what is one significant change that occurred between the
Paleolithic Age and the Neolithic Age?
SELECTED IMPACTS OF THE ENCLOSURE ACTS
• Less land wastage—boundaries between strips could now be farmed
• Land of a good farmer no longer suffered from neglect of neighboring strips
• Animal diseases were less likely to spread to all village animals. Separate fields for animals
made selective breeding possible
• Eviction of farmers (known as customary tenants) who failed to prove legal entitlement to land
their families had worked for generations
• Poor farmers, allocated small plots of land, were unable to compete with large landowners. Many lost their land when their businesses failed
Source: “Enclosure Acts: Great Britain (1700–1801),” World History on File, Facts on File (adapted)
According to Facts on File, what was one effect of the Enclosure Acts?
The Green Revolution refers to the wave of technological development [research] that started in
the 1940s to increase crop productivity in order to help developing countries face their growing
The technologies of the Green Revolution broadly fall into two major categories. The first is the
breeding of new plant varieties; the second is the application of modern agricultural techniques
such as chemical fertilizers, herbicides, irrigation, and mechanization.
Beginning in Mexico in 1944, the Green Revolution continued in the 1960s to India and Pakistan, where it is credited with saving over one billion people from starvation.
Dr. Norman Borlaug was the agricultural scientist who led the program. In 1970, he won the
Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts. . . .
Source: Engineers Without Borders, EWB Workshop, Green Revolution
According to Engineers Without Borders, what was one modern technological advance that was applied
during the Green Revolution?
The Panama Canal, with its unique location at the narrowest point between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, has had a far-reaching effect on world economic and commercial developments throughout most of this [20th] century. By providing a short, relatively inexpensive passageway between these two great bodies of water, the Canal has influenced world trade patterns, spurred growth in developed countries, and has been a primary impetus [force] for economic expansion in many remote areas of the world. For example, a vessel laden with coal sailing from the east coast of the United States to Japan via the Panama Canal saves about 4,800 kilometers (3,000 miles) versus the shortest alternative all-water route, and for a vessel laden with bananas sailing from Ecuador to Europe the distance saved is about 8,000 kilometers (5,000 miles).
By far, most of the traffic through the Canal moves between the east coast of the United States and the Far East, while movements between Europe and the west coast of the United States and Canada comprise the second major trade route at the waterway. Other regions and countries, however, such as the neighboring countries of Central and South America, are proportionately more dependent on this vital artery to promote their economic development and expand trade. . . .
Source: Maritime Industry, Panama Canal Authority
According to the Panama Canal Authority, what is one reason the Panama Canal is important to world
Source: “Legacy of the Crusades,” Aramco World
According to this excerpt from “Legacy of the Crusades,” what is one economic change brought about by the Crusades during the medieval period?
Source: Robert Agnew, M.D., “Observations on the State of the Children in Cotton Mills,” Manchester, March 23, 1818
According to Dr. Agnew, what is one impact the Industrial Revolution had on children?
. . . One day I walked with one of these middle-class gentlemen into Manchester. I spoke to him
about the disgraceful unhealthy slums and drew his attention to the disgusting condition of that
part of the town in which the factory workers lived. I declared that I had never seen so badly built a town in my life. He listened patiently and at the corner of the street at which we parted company he remarked: “And yet there is a great deal of money made here. Good morning, Sir.”. . .
Source: Friedrich Engels, The Condition of the Working Class in England, Stanford University Press (adapted)
According to Friedrich Engels, what is one result of the Industrial Revolution on the living conditions of
The expansion of world trade has unleashed a multitude of dramatic changes. Whole countries
have seen their fortunes soar as foreign investment has poured in, creating factories and
providing jobs for millions of people. Other countries have been left behind. In the process,
billions of lives are affected, for better and worse. . . .
Source: Herbert Buchsbaum, “Living in a Global Economy,” Scholastic Update, March 7, 1997
According to Herbert Buchsbaum, what is one economic change that has occurred as a result of globalization?
. . . The seeds of independence were first sown among free black soldiers sent by the white
French governors to fight against the British in the American War of Independence, where they
were exposed to anti-colonial ideas. Later, the French Revolution’s notions of liberty, equality,
and brotherhood inspired an independence movement among the minority white settlers and a
highly fragmented socioeconomic mix of free blacks. When the white population defied an order
from France to enfranchise [give rights to] free blacks, it triggered a violent revolt that involved
changing alliances among free blacks and the large slave population. After promulgating
[announcing] a constitution in 1801 and overcoming a military force sent by Napoleon (First
Consul, 1799–1804; Emperor, 1804–1814/1815), Haiti successfully declared its independence.
Its success, along with that of the American War of Independence, inspired a number of anticolonial
struggles throughout Latin America. . . .
Source: New York Public Library, Russia Engages the World, online exhibition (adapted)
Based on this document, identify one situation that led to Haiti’s declaration of independence from
. . . EDITOR: Passive resistance is a method of securing rights by personal suffering; it is the
reverse of resistance by arms. When I refuse to do a thing that is repugnant [offensive] to my
conscience, I use soul-force. For instance, the Government of the day has passed a law which is
applicable to me. I do not like it. If by using violence I force the Government to repeal the law,
I am employing what may be termed body-force. If I do not obey the law and accept the penalty
for its breach, I use soul-force. It involves sacrifice of self.
Everybody admits that sacrifice of self is infinitely superior to sacrifice of others. Moreover, if this kind of force is used in a cause that is unjust, only the person using it suffers. He does not make others suffer for his mistakes. Men have before now done many things which were
subsequently found to have been wrong. No man can claim that he is absolutely in the right or
that a particular thing is wrong because he thinks so, but it is wrong for him so long as that is his
deliberate judgment. It is therefore meet [proper] that he should not do that which he knows to
be wrong, and suffer the consequence whatever it may be. This is the key to the use of soul-force. . . .
Source: M. K. Gandhi, Hind Swaraj or Indian Home Rule, Navajivan Publishing House, 1946
What contribution did Mohandas Gandhi make to the Indian independence movement according to this