The Pinochet Case—A Wake-up Call to Tyrants and Victims Alike
. . . In 1996, lawyers acting on behalf of victims of military repression in Argentina and Chile who
were unable to pursue their claims at home filed criminal complaints in Spain against the former
military leaders of those countries, including General Pinochet. Although most of the crimes
were committed in Argentina and Chile, Spanish courts allowed the cases to proceed in Spain,
using the principle of “universal jurisdiction” over human rights atrocities that is firmly enshrined
in Spanish legislation and international law though rarely invoked. . . .
Human Rights Watch described the Pinochet arrest as a “wake-up call” to tyrants everywhere, but an equally important effect of the case has been to give hope to other victims that they can
bring their tormentors to justice abroad. Indeed, in January 2000, Human Rights Watch helped
Chadian victims to bring a criminal prosecution in Senegal against the exiled dictator of Chad,
Hissein Habre, who has been indicted and awaits trial on torture charges. . . .
Source: “The Pinochet Precedent: How Victims Can Pursue Human Rights Criminals Abroad,” Human Rights Watch, March 2000 (adapted)
According to this document, what is one way victims can seek justice when their human rights have been
II. Proletarians and Communists
. . .The immediate aim of the Communists is the same as that of all the other proletarian parties:
Formation of the proletariat into a class, overthrow of bourgeois supremacy, conquest of political
power by the proletariat. . . .
The distinguishing feature of Communism is not the abolition of property generally, but the
abolition of bourgeois property. But modern bourgeois private property is the final and most
complete expression of the system of producing and appropriating products that is based on class
antagonisms, on the exploitation of the many by the few. . . .
Source: Marx and Engels, Manifesto of the Communist Party, International Publishers
According to Marx and Engels, what is one idea that characterize Marxist communism?
On June 30, 1950, the government passed the Agrarian [agricultural] Reform Law designed to return the land to the people who actually worked it. Teams were dispatched throughout the country to redistribute land in favor of poor and middle-level peasants and to form associations or mutual aid groups, the forerunners of collectives. . . .
Source: Associated Press, “China: From the Long March to Tiananmen Square,” Henry Holt and Company
According to this Associated Press excerpt, what is one way the Chinese Communists attempted to
transform their society?
Source: John L. Esposito, ed., The Oxford History of Islam, Oxford University Press
According to The Oxford History of Islam, what is one way Islam was spread to African societies?
Cortes was very grateful for the attentions shown him by Ixtlilxochitl and his brothers; he
[Cortes] wished to repay their kindness by teaching them the law of God, with the help of his
interpreter Aguilar. The brothers and a number of the other lords gathered to hear him, and he
told them that the emperor of the Christians had sent him here, so far away, in order that he
might instruct them in the law of Christ. He explained the mystery of the Creation and the Fall,
the mystery of the Trinity and the Incarnation and the mystery of the Passion and the Resurrection. Then he drew out a crucifix and held it up. The Christians all knelt, and Ixtlilxochitl and the other lords knelt with them.
Cortes also explained the mystery of Baptism. He concluded the lesson by telling them how
the Emperor Charles grieved that they were not in God’s grace, and how the emperor had sent
him among them only to save their souls. He begged them to become willing vassals of the
emperor, because that was the will of the pope, in whose name he spoke. . . .
Source: Miguel Leon-Portilla, ed., The Broken Spears: The Aztec Account of the Conquest of Mexico,
Beacon Press (adapted)
According to this excerpt from The Broken Spears, how was Christianity spread in Mexico?
Source: Donald S. Lopez, Jr., “Buddhism in Practice,” Asian Religions in Practice, Princeton University Press, 1999
According to this excerpt from “Buddhism in Practice,” how did Buddhism spread from its place of origin in ancient India to other parts of Asia?
Source: Andrew C. Nahm, A Panorama of 5000 Years: Korean History, Hollym
According to Andrew C. Nahm, what is one aspect of Korean culture that was influenced by the spread of
Source: Philip Koslow, Ancient Ghana: The Land of Gold, Chelsea House Publishers
What is one reason travel across the Sahara Desert was difficult, according to Philip Koslow?
Source: Ute Schaeffer, “Deutsche Welle reporters on the ground,” Down to Earth: News & Views on Desertification, UNCCD, June 2006, Volume 21
What is one challenge areas face because of desertification, according to Ute Schaeffer?
Source: James I. Clark, India: The Subcontinent: India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, McDougal, Littell & Company
According to James I. Clark, what is a monsoon?